Research: The effect of target size on the control and accuracy of foot placement in uni-lateral transtibial amputees.

We have been contacted by Michael Haley who is a postgraduate sport and clinical biomechanics student at Liverpool John Moores University. He is undertaking a research project as part of his degree programme and is looking for Liverpool-based participants over the age of 18 with below-knee lower limb loss to assist him with this research.

Pseudonyms will be used to protect the identities of individuals taking part and £10 travel expenses will be offered.

Please do help Michael if you can. This valuable research could well be of benefit to the amputee community.


Title of Project: The effect of target size on the control and accuracy of foot placement in unilateral transtibial amputees

  Name of Researcher[s] (Student[s]): Michael Haley

 Name of Research Supervisor: Dr Richard J Foster

 Location: Tom Reilly Building, Byrom St, Liverpool L3 5AF

Contact details:

Participants may be able to take part in the study if they are a recreationally active adult with below-knee lower-limb loss and are over the age of 18. All participants will be high functioning experienced users of their prescribed prosthetic limb. 

Participants must not take part in this study if there are any issues with the prosthetic limb or medical issues with the stump (including sores and blisters), visual, neurological or balance impairments and any medically diagnosed cardiovascular disease.  

What is the purpose of the study?

The purpose of this study is to identify if there is a difference in the accuracy of foot placement when standing on the prosthetic or intact limb and if accuracy of foot-placement is affected by walking speed.

The research will take place in the Biomechanics Laboratory at Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street Campus, L3 5AF. Only one visit will need to be made lasting approximately 1.5hr. 

Having obtained consent and deemed the participant eligible for participation, participants will have an introduction to the lab and be talked through the process, as well as a demonstration of the activity that will be performed. 

Participants will be asked to change into shorts and tight fitted clothing wearing running shoes. Prior to physical activity basic anthropometric data (Height and Mass) will be recorded. A set of reflective markers will be applied to the body which enable tracking of the skeletal system. A familiarisation process where the activity is performed and participants have a chance to practice the task of placing their foot in the targeted area will then be given.

Testing will commence and participants will complete 18 walking trials. The trial will involve the participant walking a short distance (10 m) placing either their prosthetic leg or intact leg into a floor-based target. The participant will complete trials in three different target conditions and two limb conditions with five trials per condition. Each trial will involve the participant walking a short distance (10 m) placing either their prosthetic leg or intact leg into the target five times. In order to test the control and accuracy of foot placement participants will be required to step into a target 150 x 150% of foot length and width, 150 x 200% and 150 x 200%. In total there will be six conditions.

Participants will receive £10 to cover travel expenses.

Please contact Michael Haley if you’d like to support this research or require further information:

Email